Sewing supports secured by passing the threads across them on the spine, but not encircling them with thread (wound supports). Recessed supports could be sewn this way from the late 16th century and flat tape supports from at least the mid-18th century.
Finishing tools in which the design is engraved or recessed into the surface of the tool and which will therefore stand proud of the covering material around it which will be depressed by the un-engraved area of the tool to create the background to the design.
Pressing an engraved metal plate or block into a paper, which can be either plain, or already decorated with colours or entirely covered with metal either in the form of leaves or powdered, in order to produce raised or recessed designs (i.e. the colour or foil is not transferred by the embossing process).
Spine linings cut to the width of the spine and which extend from (or close to) the head to the tail of the spine. Such linings were often used on smooth spines created by unsupported sewing or recessed-support sewing, but are occasionally found over raised supports, in which case the lining will be moulded over the supports.
Catchplates, the outer ends of which drop down over the edge of the board before rising to create a gutter-like groove into which the hooked clasp fastens. Dropped-lip catchplates, especially if nailed into shallow recesses on the surface of a board will keep the clasp within the thickness of the bound book, and would therefore be relatively safe to shelve vertically.
The slips of the two thin single cord recessed sewing supports used in bindings made for French schoolbooks throughout the nineteenth and into the first half the twentieth century were often laced through single holes in the boards and knotted together on the insides of the boards, creating a very visible lump under the pastedowns between the pairs of entry holes.
Channels, or recesses, cut across two or more planks with angled sides, wider at the bottom, into which a dovetail batten can be slid. Tapering dovetail channels cut at right angles into the external surfaces of the spine edges of wooden boards were also used in conjunction with horizontal wooden plugs for attaching wooden boards in Bavaria from the late fifteenth to the early sixteenth centuries.
A technique first used when sewing on recessed single sewing supports where the thread, instead of going around the sewing supports is simply passed across the back of them in the recesses. This took less time and allowed the thread to be tensioned at the change-over station at the end of each gathering rather than at each sewing support, as was necessary when passing the thread around the supports (wound sewing), further accelerating the process. In England, this technique came into use in the first half of the seventeenth century. A similar economy was also possible with flat sewing supports such as parchment and textile tapes, in which the thread passes across the back of the supports and not around them, leaving a gap in the thread which is the width of the sewing supports visible on the inside of the gatherings at each sewing support (also known as tape sewing, Etherington and Roberts). This has been recorded in England from as early as the first decade of the eighteenth century, but does not become common until the mid-century.
Nicholas Pickwoad (1994), “Onward and Downward: How Binders Coped with the Printing Press before 1800”, in A Millennium of the Book: Production, Design and Illustration in Manuscript and Print 900-1900, edited by Michael Harris and Robin Myers, Publishing Pathways 8, Winchester, St. Paul’s Bibliographies, pp. 61–106.
Roberts, Matt, Don Etherington, and Margaret R. Brown. 1982. Bookbinding and the conservation of books: a dictionary of descriptive terminology. Washington: Library of Congress.
The ends of sewing supports slips which, when laced through three holes in a pattern that became typical of French binding from the second half of the 16th century through to the 19th century, are, after they emerge on the inner surface of the boards through the re-entry lacing holes, tucked under themselves between the entry and exit lacing holes. This technique appears to have been introduced to prevent the slips of thin recessed cords pulling out of the boards when laced laced through two holes only.
Narrow lengths of wood with angled sides, wider at the base, used to secure the joints between two or more parallel planks of wood in a constructed board by being slid into a dovetail channel cut across the planks. When used in areas outside the construction of book boards, the batten may sit on the surface of the planks (in the construction of doors this is known as a ledge), but in book boards, the batten must be recessed so as to leave the board with a smooth surface, hence the use of dovetail channels.
The Arts and Architecture Thesaurus Online, The Getty Research Institute.