The areas created at the outer ends of the panels at the head and tail of the spine of a book where the decoration found between the sewing supports and repeated at head and tail is shorter than these panels. The infil panels may be left blank or filled with tooling.
The use of only some of the sewing support slips to attach boards or a lace-case cover to a bookblock. This was done as an economy and can be found as early as the last quarter of the fifteenth century. The unlaced slips would most often be cut off at the joints.
Martha Elena Romero Ramírez (2013), “Limp, Laced-Case Binding in Parchment on Sixteenth-Century Mexican Printed Books”, PhD Thesis, London, University of the Arts London.
In multi-section sewing, a single length of thread extending between the change-over stations at the head and tail of the gatherings is used to attach two or more gatherings to the sewing supports. According to the number of gatherings attached with each single thread, these are known as two-on sewing, three-on sewing, etc.
Bernard Middleton, A history of English Craft Bookbinding Techniques, New Castle, London, Oak Knoll Press, The British Library, 1994 (4th ed.)
The path taken by a sewing support slip which enters the spine edge of a board through a tunnel to emerge into a channel in either surface of the board which connects to a hole which takes the slip into a second channel cut into the opposite side of the board, where it is secured in yet another hole with a wedge.
Szirmai, J. A. (1999) The Archeology of Medieval Bookbinding. Aldershot: Ashgate.
A material made by twisting together twisted strands of vegetable fibres to provide a material of a thickness suitable for either a sewing support or endband core, the former often being referred to as sewing cords. Cord is typically made from a variety of bast fibres the most common of which on early bindings will be jute, flax (linen) and hemp.
The Arts and Architecture Thesaurus Online, The Getty Research Institute.
The process of attaching either the boards to a bookblock by lacing each sewing support or endband slip through two holes, an entry and an exit hole, drilled or pierced close to the spine edge of the board, or a case-type cover, in which the slip is first laced out of an exit hole and back inside through an entry hole.
Nicholas Pickwoad (1991), “Italian and French Sixteenth-Century Bindings”, Gazette of the Grolier Club, New Series, 43, pp. 55–80.
The slips of the two thin single cord recessed sewing supports used in bindings made for French schoolbooks throughout the nineteenth and into the first half the twentieth century were often laced through single holes in the boards and knotted together on the insides of the boards, creating a very visible lump under the pastedowns between the pairs of entry holes.
The boards which are attached directly to a sewn bookblock by means of sewing supports slips, bridling, etc. Most bindings will only have primary boards and there is no need to distinguish them as such. This only becomes necessary when secondary boards are adhered to them. Primary boards will be covered, at least around their edges, independently of the secondary boards.
Pieces of sheet material adhered to one or other, or both, surfaces of a board before the book is covered, and either before or after the board is attached to the bookblock. Linings on the inside of the board may have been intended to counteract the tendency of the covering material to pull the board outwards as it shrank on drying, but in other cases the purpose may have been to consolidate or neaten up the board surface. They should not be confused with the sometimes complex linings in white paper adhered to the boards and spines of inboard bindings with raised sewing supports and tight-backs covered in parchment made in the Low Countries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, whose purpose was to brighten the appearance of the thin, rather translucent parchment used on these bindings and disguise the sewing supports, spine linings, etc.
The slips of cord sewing supports or endband cores could be untwisted, frayed out and scraped against the edge of a knife so that they could be adhered to the internal or external surfaces of boards without leaving a prominent bump under either the covering material or the endleaves. The fraying and adhering of sewing support slips was a specifically German practice from at least the second quarter of the sixteenth century, at first to the external surfaces of the boards, and from the mid-seventeenth century to the internal surfaces. The use of endband slips for this purpose was especially typical of more expensive French bindings, on which it took over from laced endband slips in the second quarter of the sixteenth century and remained in use until the beginning of the seventeenth. The frayed slips were apparently known in France as 'moustaches'. Occasional fifteenth-century examples have been recorded.